Topics for v2.x

Topics for v1.x

Distance fields

Using the shader node a lot of different effects can be created.

One method of creating spectacular scenes is using distance fields / raymarching. For example the Meta ice and To the road of ribbon scenes are created using this method.
A good detailed description can be found in Rendering Worlds With Two Triangles and in Potatro, RayMarching and DistanceFields : a story of SphereTracing

The main shader loop in a distance fields shader looks like
float3 point = rayOrigin, rayDir;
float t = 0.0;
for (int stepNr=0; stepNr<NUMSTEPS; stepNr++)
	float dist = Dist(point);
	if (dist < 0.1)
	point = point + dist*rayDir;
	t += dist;

For distance function here is a few things you can try
float DistToPlane(float3 p, float3 normal, float dist)
	return dot(p,normal)-dist;

float DistToSphere(float3 p, float radius)
	return length(p) - radius;

float DistToCylinderY(float3 p, float radius)
	return length(float2(p.x, p.z)) - radius;

float DistToConeY(float3 p, float angle)
	return length(float2(p.x, p.z))*cos(angle) - abs(p.y)*sin(angle);

float DistToCube(float3 p,float3 size)
    return max(max(abs(p.x)-size.x, abs(p.y)-size.y), abs(p.z)-size.z);

float DistToRoundedCube(float3 p, float3 boxExtents, float rad )
	return length(max(abs(p)-box + float3(rad), 0.0 ))-rad;

float DistToTorus(float3 p, float radiusMin, float radiusMax)
	return length(float2(length(float2(p.x, p.z)-radiusMax, p.y))-radiusMin;

To create more interesting scenes the above functions can be combined in a vararity of ways
  • Union: min(distToObject1(p), distToObject2(p))
  • Intersection: max(distToObject1(p), distToObject2(p))
  • Inverse: -distToObject1(p)
  • Subtraction: max(distToObject1(p),-distToObject2(p))

Further reading

Sphere tracing: a geometric method for the antialiased ray tracing of implicit surfaces
Pouets 'Raymarching Beginners Thread'
Pouets 'Raymarching Toolbox Thread'
Pouets 'So, what do distance field equations look like? And how do we solve them?'